Requires authorship of a significant paper representing substantial legal research, the work involved being equivalent to a two-credit course including preparation for classes and examination. Topics must receive prior approval and the writing must be supervised by a faculty member. Students may not take more than two Independent Study Papers except under extraordinary circumstances and with the approval of the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs.
Graded on a pass/fail basis. In rare circumstances, the faculty member may award a grade of "Pass with Distinction." These credits do not involve scheduled classes. No more 21 credits not involving scheduled classes may count toward the J.D.